Greek philosopher Plato was a student of Socrates and later became a teacher of Aristotle.
He was a priori , a rational philosopher who sought knowledge logically rather than from the senses. He went on to establish the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Western world.
12 Famous Philosophers and Their Guiding Principles
The Works of Aristotle. Considered one of the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology, and ethics, Aristotle learned from Plato after enrolling in his Academy at age seventeen. Later, he went on to tutor Alexander the Great. Aristotle focused on a posteriori routes of knowledge, a term popularized by Immanuel Kant where conclusions are formed based on actual observation and data. Dante was a Medieval Italian poet and moral philosopher regarded as the father of the modern Italian language.
He is best remembered for his poetic trilogy, The Divine Comedy , which comprised of sections that represented three tiers of the Christian afterlife: purgatory, heaven, and hell. The poem features an array of learning, an analysis of contemporary problems, and creativity in language and imagery. Le provinciali o Lettere scritte da Luigi Montalto. Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who laid the fountain for the modern theory of probabilities, a branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena.
In , Pascal published Les Provinciales under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, a series of eighteen letters that defended Jansenist over Jesuit theologies. Two Treatises of Government.
Contemporary philosophy - Wikipedia
John Locke was an English philosopher and Enlightenment thinker who came to be known as the Father of Classical Liberalism. Throughout his studies, he made valuable contributions to modern theories of a limited, liberal government. His most notable work, Essay Concerning a Human Understanding , offers an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. One of the most important channels by which Greek philosophy was transmitted to the Middle Ages was Boethius.
He began to translate into Latin all the philosophical works of the Greeks, but his imprisonment and death by order of Theodoric , king of the Ostrogoths, cut short this project. He finished translating only the logical writings of Porphyry and Aristotle. These translations and his commentaries on them brought to the thinkers of the Middle Ages the rudiments of Aristotelian logic.
They also raised important philosophical questions, such as those concerning the nature of universals terms that can be applied to more than one particular thing. Do universals exist independently, or are they only mental concepts? If they exist independently, are they corporeal or incorporeal? If incorporeal, do they exist in the sensible world or apart from it? Medieval philosophers debated at length these and other problems relating to universals.
In his logical works Boethius presents the Aristotelian doctrine of universals: that they are only mental abstractions. In his De consolatione philosophiae c.
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This book was extremely popular and influential in the Middle Ages. It contains not only a Platonic view of knowledge and reality but also a lively treatment of providence, divine foreknowledge, chance, fate, and human happiness. You are using an outdated browser.
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Western philosophy. Article Media.
Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Hegel disparaged Africans. Nietzsche despised sick people. Mill condoned colonialism. Fanon was homophobic. Frege was anti-Semitic; Heidegger was a Nazi. Schopenhauer was sexist. Rousseau abandoned his children. Wittgenstein beat his young students. Unfortunately, these examples are just a start. These philosophers are famous for their intellectual accomplishments, yet they display serious moral or intellectual flaws in their beliefs or actions.
At least, some of their views were false, ultimately unjustified and, perhaps, harmful. How should we respond to brilliant-but-flawed philosophers from the past? Any insights gained here might be applicable to contemporary imperfect philosophers, scholars in other fields,  and people in general. Philosoph ers are distinct from philosoph ies : people are not their propositions. But thoughts say something about the thinker. Some responses to flawed philosophers seem to be attacks on the person, not on their ideas. Ad hominem attacks are often irresponsible, but are they ever appropriate?
jordants.org/components/narrative/where-theres-a-will-the-ride-of-a-lifetime.php Might personal moral vice relevantly impact moral philosophizing? Moral evaluation? Philosophies are sometimes developed from, or based on, false empirical information. If the thinker had better information, would their philosophy have been better? Living people can apologize, pledge to do better and seek to make amends with the hope of forgiveness.
There surely are other potentially-relevant general concerns to be identified and applied. However, unless we make it clear to readers that there are bad elements and that we are ignoring them, we risk misleading or deceiving them into believing the philosopher was not flawed: e. What then is too serious? We might wonder though, what the point would be. This makes it more likely that offenses would be forgotten  and disrupts our understanding of later thinkers who were influenced by that flawed philosopher.
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