We now know that the decisions a man makes before conception can have lifelong impacts on his kids.
What to tell your kid when their dad is not involved
Studies suggest that men who binge drink before conception are more likely to have kids with congenital heart diseases and who abuse alcohol. Poor dietary choices in men can lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. At least one study suggests that men who are stressed before conception may predispose their offspring to high blood sugar. Until the s, experts seldom encouraged dads to take part in parent groups, to participate during labor, or to care for infants. It was generally understood that dads existed to teach their toddlers to walk and their kids to play catch, not to handle baby stuff.
But the past few decades of research suggest that the earlier a dad gets involved, the better.
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In a book on the subject , researchers argued that fathers who are actively involved in labor are effectively developing relationships albeit one-way relationships with their children as early as possible, and subsequent studies suggest this leads to stronger early attachment to the baby. And, as numerous studies have shown, more paternal involvement means better outcomes for kids. To foster this connection, some scientists have argued that healthy women and newborns should return home as soon as possible after delivery, especially if the father is not allowed to stay overnight in the hospital.
But pregnancy and labor are when the groundwork for the Father Effect begins, and its importance cannot be overstated. First of all, as ever, showing up is half the battle. Dads who live with their kids and take time out of their days to attend important events are far more likely to have a positive impact than absent fathers. For dads who live apart from their kids, there are limited options for engaging fatherly interactions.
Warmth is also a key factor. Fathers who spent a lot of time with their kids but are dismissive or insulting tend to have only negative impacts. These short-term reactions are very different than the long-term effects of dad being around. One study cited in the book found that infants attained higher cognitive scores at age 1 if their fathers were involved in their lives when they were 1 month old.
Preterm infants similarly score higher at 36 months if their dads play an active role from birth, and a separate study found that infants who played with their dads at 9 months enjoyed similar benefits. Although the trend holds across several studies, it is important to note that at least one study did not find a link between fathers playing with their infants and cognitive development.
When infants transition into toddlers around age 1, the Father Effect becomes even more pronounced. Studies suggest that when fathers are involved in everyday tasks — dinner, playing in the backyard — rather than expansive but one-off trips, toddlers and young children benefit. As anecdotal evidence indicates, sons especially need their dads. In the book Do Fathers Matter?
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Paul Raeburn describes how scientists observed that U. Similar studies cited in the book show that sons who grow up without fathers or with disengaged fathers tend to be less popular in preschool. Child Development. Journal of Marriage and Family. Annual Review of Sociology. A review of the effects of kin on child survival" PDF. Evolution and Human Behavior. Population Trends. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
Children Have Rights - Them Before Us
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delansebac.tk Richard; Cliquet, R. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. American Journal of Human Biology. Annals of Human Biology. Journal of Adolescent Research. In attempting to explain how divorce will affect children, it is necessary for a research to first examine and categorize children in groups which will make it easy to carry out the study. This is because children will be affected differently by divorce depending on the age factor.
The research will become more attainable if carried out using learning institutions which will include pre-schools, secondary schools and colleges. Therefore, a city within a state is selected where the research will be conducted and a preschool, one secondary school and one college is selected within the city where respondents children are found. Objectives becomes necessary for the study. This will allow a research to focus on certain areas and completely address the matter at hand without leaving gaps in the area of research. In addressing the topic, 'The effect on children of an absent parent following divorce,' the following research objectives can be used".
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Philadelphia: Saunders. Mavis Developmental Psychology. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. Psychological Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health. Journal of Biosocial Science. International Journal of Obesity. K Family composition, stress, and the timing of human menarche.
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